Cardiac Biomarkers

Key Researcher

picture of MMRF researcher Dr. Fred Apple

Fred Apple, PhD, is an internationally recognized expert in the fields of clinical chemistry and toxicology. He has lectured and published extensively in the field of cardiac biomarkers.

Laboratory Staff


The HHRI/HCMC Cardiac Biomarker Trials Laboratory (CBTL) provides a reliable, economical, and comprehensive center of excellence for:

  • clinical studies and outcome research
  • technology assessment for instrumentation and method evaluation
  • reference laboratory capabilities for in-vitro diagnostic manufacturers pharmaceutical companies, and commercial vendors
  • clinical, applied, and basic research investigations of novel biomarkers in cardiology, stroke, traumatic brain injury, and diabetes
  • near-bedside, point of care testing

HCMC provides an excellent resource for patient enrollment and specimen acquisition for clinical studies and trials, outcomes assessments, and research studies in cardiology and other selected specialties. All research is approved by the HCMC/HHRI IRB committee for human subjects research in a timely period, for rapid study implementation.

Since 1982 Dr. Apple and his staff have carried out over 250 clinical studies, trials, and analytical evaluations. These studies focus on biomarkers of myocardial injury, including: myocardial infarction, reperfusion success, outcomes risk assessments, decentralized point of care testing trials, CABG, PCI, renal disease and other non-ischemic mechanisms of injury. In addition, the laboratory serves as a center of excellence for forensic and clinical toxicology applied research studies.

Services provided by the laboratory include:

  • Customized assay and instrument evaluations for central laboratory as well as for point of care – near bedside testing devices
  • Design and implementation of clinical and analytical trials for 510(k) and PMA protocols along FDA regulations
  • Testing on human and veterinary serum, plasma or tissue samples
  • Reference range determination customized for age, ethnic and gender diversity
  • Diverse instrumentation to support comparative testing
  • Expert medical and technical consultative services specializing in a wide range of analytes and regulatory issues

View Dr. Apple’s Reverences Through September 2017 of articles published by the lab.

Current Research

Cardiac Biomarkers Studied:

  • Cardiac troponin I and T, including high sensitivity assays
  • BNP, NT-proBNP, and proBNP, MR-proANP
  • Total Creatine Kinase (CK)
  • CKMB mass and isoforms
  • Myoglobin
  • LD isoenzymes
  • Glycogen phosphorylase BB
  • Fatty acid binding protein
  • D-dimer
  • Free fatty acids, unconjugated
  • Albumin cobalt binding test (IMA)
  • Placental Growth Factor
  • Myeloperoxidase
  • CD 40 Ligand
  • Interleukin (6,10)
  • Metalloproteinases
  • Pregnancy Associated Plasma Protein A (PAPP-A)
  • hsCRP
  • Novel biomarkers of ischemia, myocardial dysfunction and inflammation

Other Areas

  • Toxicology – postmortem forensic toxicology, drugs of abuse, therapeutic drug monitoring
  • Diabetes
  • Obesity
  • Stroke
  • Pulmonary Embolism
  • Metabolic – electrolytes, beta-hydroxybutyrate, vitreous humor analysis
  • Anemia – B12, folate, ferritin
  • Tumor markers
  • Traumatic brain injury (TBI)
  • Infectious Disease
  • Urinalysis



Automated Platforms:

  • Abbott Architect i1000 SR and i2000 SR
  • Siemens ADVIA Centaur XP and XPT, Dimension RxL, Immulite 2000
  • Beckman Coulter Access2
  • Ortho Clinical Diagnostics Vitros ECi
  • Roche Cobas e411
  • bioMérieux Vidas, Mini-Vidas
  • Brahms Kryptor Plus
  • TECAN EVO 150

Point of Care:

  • Alere Triage
  • Siemens Stratus CS
  • Nanomix eLab
  • Abbott POC i-Stat
  • Trinity Meritas
  • MKI Pathfast

Other Instrumentation:

  • Artel PCS2—Pipette Calibration System
  • Beckman-Coulter Allegra 6 Centrifuge, Vortex, Orbital Shaker and Balances
  • Molecular Devices Micro-Plate Reader and Scanner
  • Tecan EVO 150 Automated Microtiter Plate System
  • ThermoScientific Heraus Megafuge 16
  • Eppendorf 5430 Microcentrifuge
  • Denville Scientific 300D Microcentrifuge
  • Stat Spin Express 3
  • Water Bath Precision 183
  • Millipore AFs-16D Water Filtration System
  • Isensix Temperature Monitoring System

Contact Us

Cardiac Biomarker Trials Laboratory
Hennepin Healthcare Research Institute
914 South 8th Street, S3.110
Minneapolis, MN 55404
Phone: 612-873-6893
Fax: 612-337-7380

Suggested Links*

University of Minnesota Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology

American Association for Clinical Chemistry

International Federation of Clinical Chemistry

Academy of Clinical Laboratory and Physicians and Scientists

The Society of Forensic Toxicology

American Heart Association

*HHRI is not responsible for the content on external websites. The appearance of these links on the HHRI website does not constitute an endorsement by HHRI.